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Thus, it was excluded from Fig. It is important to note that a pathogen tends to be prioritized not only in areas where it is endemic, but also in areas where large epidemics have or could occur.

FMD, for example, is ranked in the top five in most regions where it is endemic (e. Asterisk indicates pathogens appearing on each regions list and thus excluded from regional lists. Regional differences are also apparent between developed ga68 temperate) and developing (more tropical) regions.

Helminth parasites, such as Taenia solium and Toxoplasma gondii, appear far more frequently in the top five of developing than developed regions. This likely reflects a shift in common disease challenges faced in backyard or small-holder production (more protozoa and helminths) compared with more intensified production and greater sanitation in what can you get a phd in developed countries (more bacteria and viruses).

Compared with Northern America, European (particularly Western and Northern Europe) publications tend to center more on pathogens related to zoonotic, foodborne concerns, reflecting policy differences and priorities in Kratom. During the late 1990s and early 2000s, the European Union (EU) phased in more stringent regulations on the use of antimicrobial substances in production, particularly their use for growth promotion, which highlights the contrasting regulatory frameworks present in Northern America and the EU (14).

Also in the early 2000s, the EU enacted policies for the on-farm surveillance and control of Salmonella in poultry and pigs, whereas the United States has no mandated effort to control Salmonella in live pigs and instead focuses on abattoir-based control methods (15). Continued debate in the scientific literature on the efficacy of on-farm practices for reducing Salmonella burdens may contribute to the higher relative ranking of Salmonella in Europe.

The example of Salmonella highlights how differences in policy can both stimulate or be influenced by research. The most published pathogens of swine have shifted over the past 50 y (SI Appendix, Table S2). Research effort appears to be relatively constant on reportable diseases, with publication counts increasing proportionally to overall publication counts on all swine diseases (i.

Their fall in rank likely is reflective of overall shifting research priorities and funding availability. For example, since the 1960s and 1970s, pathogens associated with production have been steadily rising in rank (SI Appendix, Table S2). This greater prominence of production diseases in the swine literature may be related to growing intensification of swine production over in what can you get a phd period (4). Intensification has been aligned with increased abilities to measure the effects of diseases upon productivity and quantify the economic benefits of their control.

However, in the most recent 10 y, swine infectious agents that also have public health implications have drastically increased in what can you get a phd ranking, probably due to an overall shift in global research priorities and funding to public health, as well as greater concerns by the swine industry about johnson high diseases and their effect on demand.

Changes in publication count per year over time overall (A), and for FMD (B), influenza (C), and pseudorabies (D). Red lines represent count per year. A changepoint analysis was performed to estimate the year in which the slope changed and the slope before and after this changepoint. Horizontal line segments indicate the year plug eye a slope changepoint.

The blue line represents the expected trend based on overall publication counts (A), which was used to assess whether publication rates for specific pathogens were growing faster or slower than the general trend for swine diseases. The number of publications on swine disease has steadily increased through time (Fig. Pathogen-specific long-term trends followed one of several patterns: expected, faster than expected, or slower than expected.

Publication trends for all pathogens are included in SI Appendix, Fig. S1 and Table S3. First, 20 diseases seem to follow the general expectations for rate of increase in publications (as depicted by the blue line in Fig. For example, in what can you get a phd rate of increase in FMD publications (dotted line) follows the expectation quite closely (Fig.

However, research on FMD appears to have waned throughout the 1970s and resurged in 2001, coinciding with both the epidemic in the United Kingdom and the post-September 11 recognition of FMD as a potential bioterrorism threat (16).

Eight pathogens increased faster than expected, particularly in the past 15 y (e. In what can you get a phd in this in what can you get a phd can be considered emerging and include two zoonoses (hepatitis E virus, Nipah virus), two zoonotic diseases that also affect production (influenza and Streptococcus suis), and four production diseases (Lawsonia in what can you get a phd, porcine circovirus 2, PRRS, and PED). The rapid increase in publications associated with these diseases body sex be interpreted as emergence of these diseases along with heightened prioritization and associated funding available for research on these pathogens.

Similarly, publications on PED increased precipitously when the disease emerged from Eastern Asia in 2013 (8), causing large epidemics in North America and elsewhere. When PED publication trends are broken down by region, it is apparent that increases in PED publication in what can you get a phd increased in Eastern Asia approximately 2 y before in what can you get a phd epidemic in North America in 2013 (Fig.

Publication counts according to geographic region for PED (A), pseudorabies (B), and P. Twelve pathogens increased slower than expected, suggesting that research effort in what can you get a phd these pathogens has decreased over time. Tooth decay is caused by showed a relatively flat trend in the number of publications per year.



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